Book Authored (ISBN-10: 0824821599)

Book Authored (ISBN-10: 0824821599)
Sovereign Rights and Territorial Space in Sino-Japanese Relations: Irredentism and the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands (ISBN-10: 0824824938)

Friday, December 31, 2010

Rare-earth Metal Restriction

Certain rare metals are necessary for the development of high-tech equipment and the next generation of automobiles. Currently, China provides more than 90 percent of the global market for these rare metals, such as lithium, terbium, and dysprosium. For instance, Japan depends on China for 97 percent of these rare metals. Since last year, Beijing announced that it would reduce exports of these rare metals worrying Japan and the U.S. By 2015, Chinese export of these rare metals is expected to drop to approximately 5,000 tons (Nikkei Weekly 1 March 2010). According to the Duowei Timesin Washington D.C., China is learning from the Australian model that controls its natural resources. From now on, advanced nations should not expect to obtain these rare metals easily from China. During the Sino-Japanese territorial disputes in September, China began to use its rate metals "card" to influence its diplomacy against Japan (Financila Times 28 September 2010). The USA also began to review its policy of the development of the rare metals. What are the rare earths used for (Japan Times 24 September 2010; Foreign Policy 29 September 2010)?

Energy-efficient Fluorescent Lights: europium, terbium, yttrium

Hybrid Vehicles: dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium, terbium

Automotive Catalytic Converters: cerium

Wind Turbines: dysprosium, neodymium, praseodymium, terbium

Fiber Optics: erbium, europium, terbium, yttrium

IPods: dysprosium, neodymium, praseodymium, samarium, terbium

MRI Machines: lutetium crystals

Compact Fluorescent Bulbs: terbium

Halogen Lights: scandium
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